Manga - běžná zakřivení

 

 
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Nejdůležitější věcí při kreslení jakékoliv textílie je zvážit v jakém směru bude látka tlačena/vtlačena. Záhyby se tvoří kdykoliv je textílie natahována nebo vtlačena - rozmyslete si jak přesně chcete pohnout látkou a zbytek je jednoduchý. Vždy berte v potaz postavu pod látkou - oblečení by mělo odrážet tvar osoby pod ní. Později to probereme.

Vlevo je pár příkladů typických shybů. Všiměte si pohybu každého z nich - textílie jde dolů na prvních dvou a jsou tlačeny dolů gravitací. Tento typ záhybu může být na něčem co volně visí, například dlouhý kabát. Na levém dolním a horním pravém obrázku je textílie nejen tlačena gravitací, ale tažen doleva (pravděpdoobně rukou která je pod oblečením). Záhyby se stávají více horizontální než vertikální čím více jsou napnuty. Také si všiměte jak jsou vloženy jeden do druhého. To se většinou stane když klouby nebo místa s poklesem látky jsou svázány. Dolní pravý obrázek je trošku více složitý příklad látky tažené dovíce stran. Všiměte si jak ohyby sledují směr kterým je látka tažena.


Zde je více ukázek základních tvarů ohybů. Nalevo je látka tažena k zemi grafitací a napavo větrem nebo pohybem. Nalevo je dlouhý pruh látky nahoře svázán. Doporučujeme používat stíny, které dají objektu větší formu. Obecně stínujete okolo lomu ohybu nebo kdekoliv kde si myslíte, že by se měl objevit. Je to otázkou praxe. Někdy pomáhá koukat na látky v reálu a pomohou Vám. Někdo využívá například toho, že přehodí ručník přes židli a tím si pomáhá - doporučujeme.


Tady je více různých příkladů. Zajímavé je rolování rukávu uprostřed.


Toto jsou více složité překrývajícíse a svázané příklady. Čím více detailů dáte do ohybů tím více zajímavě to bude vypadat. Nalevo si všiměte jak se látka nadzvedává nad svázáním - tíha látky ji tlačí dolů a vytváří tím záhyby. Svázání samotné je nakresleno s mnoha detaily a pod ním se vlní ve větru. Látka je stínována okolo ohybů a v zářezech tvořených těmito ohyby. Na pravém obrázku je délka látky zkrácena spadnutím na podlahu - všiměte si jak se záhyby překrývají a navazují na sebe a tím tvoří zajímavý efekt.


Další věcí na kterou chci poukázat je tloušťka látky. Another thing I want to point out is the thickness of the fabric in question. The fabric on the top example appears thinner than the fabric in the lower example. Take note of both collars. On the top, the circular rim of the collar connects directly to the rest of the collar, while on the bottom, there is a space between the circular rim and the vertical part. The same applies to the edges of the cape. While on the top example, the edge is crisp and thin, on the bottom example there is extra space between the rim and the rest of the cape. This extra space makes the clothing look more thick and heavy.

 

Now that we know a few of the basic shapes of folds in fabric, let's move on and see how clothing should look when it is actually being worn by someone. At the left, we have an example of a very loose, draping sleeve. As mentioned before, the main thing to consider is which direction the fabric will be pulled. The sleeve here is being pulled in two main directions: downwards because its pulled by gravity, and to the left because its attached to the main garment and is being stretched across the arm and torso. The folds in the sleeve will follow the direction that the cloth is being pulled. Notice also how the cloth bunches up around the wrist. This isn't necessary, but it does indicate the length and looseness of the sleeve.

Here are three more sleeve examples. These sleeves are not as loose as the one shown above, and all stick pretty close to the arm. In these examples, the cloth is stretched from the arm to the shoulder and torso, rather than being pulled down mainly by gravity. There isn't enough material to be pulled down too greatly. Since the fabric is pulled horizontally, the folds should reflect this. The best example is the top picture here; notice how the folds move towards the shoulder instead of towards the ground. The sleeve in the middle picture is a little looser, and is pulled down by gravity more. The sleeve in bottom picture is big and loose, but is rolled up at the elbows, and thus doesn't hang and droop as much as the sleeve in the previous example.


These are some miscellaneous bits of clothing that didn't fit into any of the other sections of this tutorial, but that I wanted to include anyway. In all these examples, try to identify where the cloth is being pulled towards and in what direction (for example, is it being pulled roughly towards the shoulder, or draping loosely over the subject?). Always remember to shade wherever the light doesn't fall, such as grooves, areas inside the folds, and places where the cloth overlaps.


One small but important thing I would also like to go over before continuing is the effect that stripes can have. If you are drawing clothing that has stripes or a pattern on it, make sure that the pattern moves along with the rest of the fabric. Where the cloth bends, the stripes and patterns will bend, as well. This can be difficult to draw and shade, especially when you are dealing with complex patterns, but it can add a really nice three dimensional look to your picture.

Now that we know some basic shapes and know a little more about how clothing should fit on your subject, let's work on the actual parts of your character's wardrobe. We'll start off by going over basic shirts. Whatever type of shirt you draw, there are some basic places where folds will occur. Sleeves will be stretched towards the shoulder. Fabric generally gathers and bunches up around the armpits and waistline. If you are drawing a character with a heavy jacket or a loose shirt, the fabric should be thick and baggy and full of folds and creases, while if it is a tighter fitting garment, the clothing will stick pretty close to your subject (which is why it is important to be able to draw bodies; I have found that you cannot always cover up your entire character with really loose clothing to hide the fact that you aren't very strong in figure drawing. ^_~)


Here are some better examples of various shirts and clothing for the upper body. Notice that while some clothing fits closer to the body than other clothing, you still see many folds where ever the fabric is being stretched. Generally, you'll see folds the most at the armpits, upper portions of sleeves, waistlines, and depending on how tight the outfit is, the chest (as shown in the lower two examples). Also make sure that any seams that are visible on the clothing follow the shape of the cloth and the character that is wearing it. ^_^


All right, let's work on the pants (something that I personally sometimes find a little daunting... ^.^;) I have noticed that guy's pants tend to be a little looser, while girl's pants cling closer to the subject. Also take note that female's rears tend to be more round, while guy's are tend to be flat and squared off (a rather strange observation, I know. ^_^;) No matter which gender you are drawing, the fabric will gather around the lower waist, knees, and ankles. The cloth around the upper and lower legs is generally pulled straight down by gravity and won't have too many folds, unless the leg is lifted up, in which case you'll have folds similar to the sleeves on the previous page.


Here are two more examples of clothing for the lower body. The one the left is an example of really loose, baggy pants. The material is has more folds than normal pants, and in this case gathers at the ankles. Notice how poofy the pants get below the knees. The example on the right is just showing how no matter what you character is wearing, you need to consider the form of the figure beneath the clothing. In this case, the clothing is relatively tight, but hangs down past the knees, and thus is drawn a little tighter around the rear. Also notice how the loose fabric bunches up right above and below the belt. That concludes my tutorial on drawing clothing. It isn't the most organized tutorial, but I'm hoping that it covers enough areas so that it can be of some help to you. ^_^